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Steganography Analysis and Research Center
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Steganography

Contents:

Introduction

Throughout history man has sought ways to communicate secretly. One of the earliest recorded methods for doing this was the use of wax tablets by the ancient Greeks.

In 480 BC, Demaratus used wax tablets in an attempt to warn King Leonidas of Sparta that King Xerxes I planned to lead his army into Greece prior to the historic Battle of Thermopylae. Because the danger of being discovered was great, Demaratus hid his warning by scraping the wax off the tablets and scribing his message directly onto the wood. Then he recoated the tablets with wax and sent the tablets via messenger to Leonidas. Interestingly, when the tablets were delivered, no one could figure out why they had received wax tablets wiht nothing written on them. According to The Histories written by Herodotus, widely acclaimed as the Father of History, Queen Gorgo, Leonidas' wife is purported to have said, "If they would scrape the wax off the tablet, they would be sure to find the writing upon the wood." Thus, the warning was delivered, but the Spartans got mssacred at Theropylae in one of history's greatest last stands as depicted in the movie 300 starring Gerard Butler.

Demaratus' use of wax tablets is one of the earliest and most widely referenced uses of information hiding, a practice that has become known as steganography.

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